60+ Interesting Facts About Earth

  1. Earth is the only known place in the whole universe that contains life.
  2. According to an estimate, there can be billions of earth-like planets in the universe. Earth-like planets are rocky planets with a size close to the earth and orbiting in the “habitable zone” of their stars. (Source)
  3. It is a misconception that earth is the only planet in the solar system with a complete solar eclipse. All the four gas giants (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune) also experience solar eclipses thanks to their large moons. (Source)
  4. According to a study, the earth was once purple. It was due to the presence of a molecule known as ‘retinal’ on earth around 2.4 to 3.5 billion years ago. (Source)
  5. The estimated mass of the earth is around 6 septillion kg (13 septillion lbs.). (Source)
  6. Earth completes one orbit around the sun in 365.25 days and it (0.25 extra days) is the reason behind leap years.
  7. The estimated age of the earth is 4.54 billion years.
  8. Life on earth is believed to be started around 4.1 billion years ago.
  9. Water (oceans, seas, rivers) consists of 71% area of the earth’s surface.
  10. Earth is the only planet in the solar system with plenty of water in all 3 forms (liquid, solid, and gas). (Source)
  11. The oldest material ever found on Earth is stardust, which was present in a meteorite that crashed on earth in 1969. This stardust is 7 billion years old which is 2.5 billion years older than the sun. (Source)
  12. About 1 septillion (a trillion trillion) snow crystals drop from the sky every year. The likelihood that two large snow crystals can be identical is virtually zero. (Source)
  13. Water is present around 620 miles (1000 km) beneath the earth’s surface which is equal to the amount of water in all the oceans on the earth’s surface. This water is important for geological activity below the surface of the earth. (Source)
  14. Out of the total water present on earth, only 2.5% is freshwater while around 69% of this freshwater is present in the form of ice caps and glaciers (the remaining is in the form of rivers, lakes, etc.). (Source
    Oceans on earth
    71% of earth's surface is water but 75% of earth's species are on land
  15. According to scientific estimates, there are around 8.7 million species on earth and around 75% of these species are on land. (Source)
  16. But a more comprehensive study (that also included the estimated number of bacteria) shows that the total number of species on earth could be more than 2 billion. (Source)
  17. According to fossil records, most of the animals on earth appeared during the Cambrian period around 540 million years ago.
  18. According to research, groundwater is the largest active freshwater resource on earth. The total amount of the world’s groundwater is equivalent to 180-meter deep lake that is covering the entire surface of the earth. (Source) 
  19. Earth’s rotation is slowing down overall due to the presence of tidal forces between earth and moon. Due to this gradual slow rotation, the day is increasing by 1.4 milliseconds after every 100 years. (Source)
  20. The geomagnetic field has been decaying for the last 3,000 years. According to scientific estimates, this can result in the reversal of the earth’s magnetic poles in less than one millennium. This can prove disastrous for artificial satellites and will endanger life on earth. (Source)
  21. The lowest point on the earth’s surface is the Dead Sea (-418 m) and the highest point is Mount Everest (8848 m).
  22. According to the latest research, it is estimated that quadrillion (one thousand trillion) tones of diamonds are present deep inside the earth. But these diamonds are present at 100 miles below the earth’s surface and can’t be extracted with currently available drilling machines and techniques. (Source)
  23. Danakil Depression in Africa is the hottest place on earth. It is also one of the driest and lowest places on earth. These features make this depression the most inhospitable place on earth to live. (Source)
  24. Beneath the surface, the earth has two main layers of Mantle and Core.
  25. More than 84% volume of the earth is composed of a mantle that is around 2,900 km thick.  
  26. The core is responsible to generate the earth’s magnetic field that protects the earth from the solar wind. (Source) (Source)
  27. The temperature at the boundary of the earth’s core is around 6,000 C (10,800 F) which is equal to the temperature at the surface of the sun. (Source)
  28. The Ozone layer on the earth’s atmosphere was formed with the interaction of oxygen and solar ultraviolet rays and it protects the earth from harmful ultraviolet rays of the sun.  
  29. There are several theories about the origin of the moon. According to the widely accepted theory, the moon was once part of the earth and it was formed when a small planet struck the earth at the beginning of the Solar System. (Source)
  30. The world’s largest stalagmite is in Cuba. This massive stalagmite is 70 m high with a diameter of 20 m. (Source)
  31. Moon is the only natural satellite of earth that revolves around the earth. 
  32. According to a study, the earth once had a second tiny moon. It is estimated that the collision of both moons resulted in the lumpier shape of our moon on one side. (Source)
  33. Few astronauts say that the earth may have more than one moon now. This new possible moon has the size of a compact car. (Source)
  34. Tides (rise and fall of sea level) are mainly caused by the gravitational force of the moon. (Source)
  35. The length of a day on Earth is increasing by 1.7 milliseconds each century due to ocean tides generated by the gravity of the moon and sun. (Source
    Satellite image of Bouvet Island
    Bouvet Island is the remotest island on earth

  36. The earth’s most remote island, Bouvet Island, is present in the South Atlantic Ocean. The nearest point of this uninhabited island is the Queen Maud Land in Antarctica (1,700 km south) while its nearest inhabited area is the coast of South Africa (2,600 km in the north).  
  37. Mid-ocean ridge is the longest mountain range on earth. Its length is 40,389 miles while 90% of this system is under the ocean. (Source) 
  38. Krubera Cave in Abkhazia (Georgia) is the deepest known cave on Earth with a depth of 2,197 m (7,208 feet). (Source
  39. The deepest man-made hole on earth is 7.5 miles (12 km) deep. This hole in Russia is the result of two decades of drilling. The temperature at this depth is 1800 C (3560 F). Comparatively, the distance to the center of the earth is around 4,000 miles (6,400 km). (Source)
  40. Kilauea volcano in Hawaii is the most active volcano in the world. The other two most active volcanoes are in Italy and France respectively. (Source)
  41. There are 6 layers in Earth’s atmosphere. They collectively cover a distance of 10,000 km (6,200 miles). (Source)
  42. The sun is 400 times larger than the moon but the moon can cause a solar eclipse on earth because the sun is 400 times farther from the earth than the moon.
  43. Around 95% of the world’s population lives on those parts of the earth where air quality is unhealthy. Out of these, around 60% live in areas where air quality is worst. (Source)
  44. The fastest wind speed ever recorded on earth is 256 mph (408 km/h). This speed was created by Tropical Cyclone Olivia (a hurricane) on an island in Australia. It is estimated that Tornadoes create the fastest wind speeds on earth but these can’t be measured accurately. (Source)
  45. There are total of 92 natural elements present on earth. But more than 90% mass of the earth is composed of just four elements: iron, oxygen, silicon, and magnesium. (Source)
  46. Due to less gravity, a person standing at the equator weighs slightly less as compared to his/her weight at the poles. (Source)
  47. Gravity on earth is uneven. It is lower at the equator and also at higher altitudes. (Source)
  48. Earth rotates faster at the equator than at the poles. This affects human activity, weather, and rotation of the earth. (Source)
  49. Great Barrier Reef, the world’s largest coral reef system, is the largest living structure on Earth. Its length is 1,429 miles that extended over at an area of around 133,000 square miles. Nearly 3,000 individual reefs combine to form the Great Barrier Reef. (Source)
    Great Barrier Reef satellite image
    Great Barrier reef is the earth's largest living structure
  50. The largest living organism on earth is a humongous fungus. It is spread over an area of 2.4 miles across. (Source
  51. The 24 hours is the average time of the length of Earth day. The earth usually takes less or more than 24 hours to rotate on its axis. (Source)
  52. Mountains are formed and shaped through the interaction of plate tectonics, climate, and erosion processes. (Source)
  53. There are 7 large and several small Plate Tectonics that bring earthquakes but also stabilize the earth’s surface.
  54. Rocks at the surface of the earth are continuously destroyed and recycled into new rocks. This rock cycle is stimulated by an interaction between the tectonic and the hydrologic systems. (Source)
  55. Earth has a history of formation and splitting of supercontinents. These supercontinents form and split every 400 to 500 million years due to the movement of tectonic plates. The last supercontinent is known as “Pangea” which was formed around 300 million years ago and then broke up 100 million years later. It is expected that current continents will again join together to form another supercontinent after hundreds of millions of years. (Source)
  56. More than 1,000 thunderstorms cause 6,000 lightning flashes on earth every minute. (Source
    Lightning flashes on earth
    Earth receives 6,000 lightning flashes every minute
  57. According to a study, the earth receives around 60 tons of cosmic dust every day. (Source)      
  58. Earth is the densest planet in the solar system. Its density is 5.5 gm/cm3. (Source)
  59. Iron on earth came from outer space through an explosion of stars. (Source)
  60. Apart from the earth, the names of all the other planets of the solar system are derived from Greco-Roman gods.
  61. The highest temperature ever recorded on earth is 56.7 Celsius in California, USA (1913). (Source)
  62. The lowest temperature ever recorded on earth is -93.2 Celsius in Antarctica (2010). (Source)
  63. Southern lights (the aurora australis in the Southern Hemisphere) and northern lights (the aurora borealis in the Northern Hemisphere) are strange colorful spectacles easily visible at higher altitudes. The solar wind strikes the earth’s magnetic field at the north and south magnetic poles. The collision of solar particles with oxygen or nitrogen in the earth’s atmosphere produces red, green, and purple light. (Source) 

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